Faculty of Veterinary & Animal Sciences
1. PROJECT TITLE: RKVY ON LIVELIHOOD IMPROVEMENT OF POOR AND TRIBAL PEOPLE THROUGH LIVESTOCK BASED ENTERPRISES UNDER SELECTED VILLAGES OF JHARGRAM BLOCK:
The Animal Resources Development Department, Govt. of West Bengal, and the State Level Sanctioning Committee (SLSC) has approved the prestigious RKVY project to WBUAFS initially for 5 years. Primary target of the project is to reach 1000 farmers of 50 villages under Lodhasuli, Agubani and Patasimul G.P.3 GPs, of Jhargram block under West Midnapur district during a period of 5 years, to improve the livelihood of small, marginal, landless and tribal women farmers through productivity enhancement of livestock. Critical gaps existing in the livestock production system in those villages were first identified through survey work.
For the year 2014-15, out of 2000 surveyed family, two hundred (200) nos household of said G.P(s) were selected through Baseline Survey work for integrated Livestock based enterprise model (viz Goat+Pig; Goat+Poultry; Poultry+Pig).Various livestock interventions were undertaken to bridge the gaps between income and expenditure. Financial gain through enhancement of household income will be calculated.
2. PROJECT TITLE: AICRP ON ‘GOAT IMPROVEMENT, BLACK BENGAL (FIELD UNIT):
Black Bengal Field Unit was established in 2001 under West Bengal University of Animal & Fishery Sciences, Kolkata with the main objective to conserve and genetic improvement of Black Bengal Goat in the farmer’s flock. As per the technical programme, the baseline information on production, reproduction, growth traits, population trend, managemental practices, feeding pattern, disease prevalence and socio-economics in goat production system were recorded and analyzed. The registration of animals at farmer’s flock with proper identification was carried out in village units.
• During 2014-2015 Murshidabad cluster has been extended by adopting a new village Beliapukur with 86 does in M-J Block of Murshidabad district in collaboration with KVK. Digha, West Bengal University of Animal & Fishery Sciences.
• Further, a new cluster with mostly tribal farmers at Lodhasuli (Dhangri, Ranidihi, Manapara and Malapada village) with 217 does in Jhargram Block of West Midnapur District has been adopted in March 2015. Thus the unit is now working in four clusters i.e. Nadia cluster (Ayeshpur and Ganguria), Sundarban cluster (Jatirampur and Rangabelia), Murshidabad cluster (Bamunia and Beliapukur), and Lodhasuli cluster at Jhargram.
• During 2014-15, the performance of 638 registered doe (172, 160, 216, 60 and 30 does in Ayeshpur, Ganguria, Jatirampur-Rangabelia, Bamunia village units respectively) are being recorded from which 1285 kids were born from 691 kidding (Table – 1 & 3); 53 doe have been kidded twice in this year.
• 22 Bucks were purchased based on their 6 months body weight and prolificacy status of their dams. Out of these 15 new bucks were distributed in the village units in addition to previous males or replacement for selective breeding. Rest of the bucks are maintaining at buck raising centre under the project.
• With the opening flock of 1761 in 2014-15, after breeding with selective males the closing balance has reached to 2257.
• As per the initial doe the annual growth rate of Black Bengal for this year is 174.61% and the population growth is 57.93%.
• The average flock strength in the farmers flock has increased to 5.94 in 2014-15 from 4.50 in 2013-2014; the initial flock strength was 2.53 in 2002-2003.
• 46.32 % farmers have a flock of 1 to 4 goats followed by 5 to 8 (34.88 %), 9 to 12 (14.44 %) and then by above 12 (4.36 %). It is an indicator of rearing Black Bengal goat by the farmers with small flock size; 80% farmers have a flock maximum of 8.
• In this year improvement in body growth has also been observed than previous year and the average body weight at birth, 3 month, 6 month, 9 month and 12 month was 1.203 ± 0.005 kg, 4.998 ± 0.035 kg, 7.378 ± 0.048 kg, 9.845 ± 0.065 kg and 12.419 ± 0.101 kg respectively in 2014-15.
• The mean body length, height at wither, heart girth, punch girth and head length were 20.29 ± 0.05 cm, 21.46 ± 0.06 cm, 23.54 ± 0.06 cm, 23.03 ± 0.08 cm and 7.39 ± 0.02 cm at birth; 33.38 ± 0.08 cm, 34.48 ± 0.08 cm, 38.46 ± 0.11 cm, 40.99 ± 0.13 cm and 10.51 ± 0.03 cm at 3 months; 36.79 ± 0.09 cm, 38.06 ± 0.08 cm, 44.71 ± 0.65 cm, 47.29 ± 0.16 cm and 11.83 ± 0.04 cm at 6 months; 40.07 ± 0.13 cm, 41.62 ± 0.13 cm, 48.50 ± 0.16 cm, 52.72 ± 0.22 cm and 12.74 ± 0.05 cm at 9 months; 43.84 ± 0.22 cm, 45.72 ± 0.20 cm, 53.53 ± 0.28 cm, 58.36 ± 0.29 cm and 14.24 ± 0.07 cm at 12 months of age. Male kids are bigger than female kids at all ages.
• Improvement in reproductive performances has also been noticed from previous year. During 2014-15 the average age at first service and 1st kidding were recorded as 237.54 ± 5.07 days and 383.23 ± 5.31 days respectively; the respective figure were 304.47 ± 23.77 days and 439.17 ± 24.67 days in 2013-14.
• The average overall service period, gestation period and kidding interval was 91.94 ± 3.06 days, 147.39 ± 0.26 days and 237.79 ± 3.04 days in all village units during 2014-15.
• Maximum number of kidding have been occurred from August to February although there have been kidding in every month.
• The kidding rate (litter size) has reached to 1.86 %. Twin born kidding is 52.82 % followed by singlet kidding (31.69 %), triplet kidding (13.31 %) and quadruplet kidding (2.17 %) and in 2014-15.
• With the intervention of health care and prevention the kid mortality (upto 12 month) has been restricted to 6.01% in 2014-15 and the mortality in the total flock was 6.19 %.
• In marginal (upto 20 katha land), small (20 – 40 katha land) and medium (above 40 katha land) farmers annual income was around Rs. 4603.77± 267.62, Rs. 4636.74 ± 468.24, Rs. 5961.84 ± 698.00 respectively.
• In illeterate, partially literate (Class-I to IV) and moderately literate (Class-V to XII) annual income was around Rs. 4687.16± 329.38, Rs. 4873.96 ± 395.35, Rs. 4881.58 ± 428.21
• Animals sold by the farmers are 23.14 % in 2014-15.
• The average annual income from a doe has substantially increased to Rs. 2790.00 in 2014-15.
• The average annual income of a farmer has been recorded as Rs. 4820.12 ± 225.27 in 2014-15.
The AICRP on Goat Improvement was successful enough to create awareness among the goat farmers about identification and record keeping, disadvantages of early breeding of young does; regular vaccination and de-worming; importance of giving supplementary feeding to does, bucks and kids; optimum age and weight of kids for sale with expected market rate; first aid treatment etc through organization of several treatments and vaccination camps along with other extension activities like meeting, interactive sessions, training etc.
3. PROJECT TITLE: NICHE AREA EXCELLENCE PROGRAMME ON ANIMAL DISEASE REGISTRY AND TISSUE BANK – A BRIEF REPORT OF THE ACHIEVEMENTS DURING 2014-15 ARE:
• Among the canine vector borne diseases, Babesia gibsoni was recorded the highest incidence(42%) in based upon the molecular analysis (PCR). Other CVBDs the incidence of Ehrlichia. canis, Haemobartonellacanis and Hepatozoon canis was 23%, 11% and 9% , respectively.
• With PCR as the reference diagnostic tool the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of microscopy in diagnosis of CVBDs were: 84.12%, 81.44% and 81.33% for B. gibsoni, 19.44%, 94.73% and 76.67% for E. canis, 35.7%, 100% and 94% for H. canis and 100%, 82.1% and 84% for Hbt. canis, respectively.
• With the commercial kit based on Immuno-chromatography for E. canis the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of microscopic diagnosis were 16.7%, 96.6% and 82.9%, respectively.
• Adult dogs revealed higher rate of incidence (32.7%) compared to those of the younger age groups and the dogs with better body score indices had the infections their asymptomatic carrier status.
• Among the eight dog breeds the GSD (33%) followed by Labrador (32%) and cross-bred dogs (19%) had moderate to high incidence rate of B. gibsoni and a similar trend was also observed in the other CVBDs.
• The incidence of all the CVBDs was higher in the female compared to the male.
• Mixed infection with two or more vetor-borne protozoan/rickettsial pathogens was predominant (see the Figure)
• The emerging CVBDs e.g. Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia ewingii, Theileria annae were not recorded using the molecular method of detection.
• Hemato-biochemical impact of the CVBD revealed that:
Negative impact on haemoglobin content
Increase in the counts of Neutrophil, Eosinophil and Basophil
Elevated levels of BUN, total protein and globulin
• Only three animals each out of 79 indigenous and 72 cross-bred cattle of Midnapore, Nadia, Hoogly and South 24-Parganas districts of West Bengal were seopositive for paratuberculosis as tested by the commercially available kit.
4. PROJECT TITLE: ALL INDIA NETWORK PROGRAMME ON GASTRO-INTESTINAL PARASITISM:
• The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites irrespective of the four ruminant livestock species in the three agro-climatic zones was 61.90%. The highest was in Hill zone (64.35%) followed by Tarai zone (64.16%) and the lowest in the Old Alluvial zone (60.94%).
• The highest seasonal prevalence was in the monsoon season (69.41%) followed by winter (55.36%) and the lowest (53.25%) in summer. Intensity of GIN infection faecal egg count (EPG) revealed the similar seasonal pattern.
• Evaluation of three commonly used anthelmintics in small ruminant livestock of five organised farms revealed that Albendazole had lower than the desired efficacy (81.54% to 95.00 %) indicating the emergence of resistance, while Ivermectin (96.67% to 98.46%) and Levamisole (95.00% to 96.92%) yielded the desired efficacy.
• The per capita net economic losses due to G.I. nematodoses in terms of reduced bodyweight/meat production alone in small ruminants were Rs. 220.00 to 260.00 in sheep, whereas it was Rs. 318.00 in case of goat.
• Attempt has been made in exploring the polymorphism in IL-13 and IFN-G genes as the genetic marker in Haemonchus resistant (based on phenotypic marker-EPG) Garole sheep and role of the level of expression of these two genes in attributing such resistance. The results are in the process analysis and interpretation.
5. PROJECT TITLE: ALL INDIA NETWORK PROGRAMME ON ‘BLUETONGUE DISEASE’:
It is one of the oldest project running in WBUAFS since 2001. Some of the achievements of the project during 2014-15 are depicted below :
• Seromonitoring for prevalence of bluetongue (BT) in sheep, goat and cattle was assessed for the first time in Meghalaya state. Considerable sero- positivity was detected in sheep (26.9 %), goat (56.5 %) and cattle (42.4 %) indicating the prevalence of bluetongue in ruminants of the state.
• Studies on prevalence of bluetongue in ruminants of Jharkhand were carried out for the first time. High seropositivity was detected in sheep (43.68%), goat (43.33%) and cattle (57.50%) for anti-BT antibodies in different agro-climatic zones of Jharkhand. Predominant vector for BT was detected as Culicoides oxystoma.
• Anti-BT antibodies (38%) detected in free-range mithun (Bos frontalis) for the first time.
• Seroprevalance of BT in ruminants (sheep-26.66%, goat-31.25%, cattle-52.27%) of Orissa reported for the first time.
• One bluetongue virus (BTV) isolate (WB/G/13) was generated from suspected goat of Midnapur district of West Bengal.
• Molecular characterization encompassing RT-PCR, Cloning and Sequencing of the new BTV isolate revealed that the isolate was of BTV- 16.
• Molecular identification & phylogenetic characterization of BT vector, Culicoides oxystoma, was carried out for the first time from eastern India.
6. PROJECT TITLE: MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION AND STUDY OF DISEASE RESISTANCE GENES OF INDIGENOUS SHEEP IN WEST BENGAL:
Birbhum sheep has been characterized and observed to be genetically distinct from other sheep breeds of West Bengal. It has been documented as a newly identified sheep breed in the dry arid region of Birbhum district of West Bengal for the first time by Dr. A. Pal.
Immune response gene as CD14 was reported for the first time in World in Garole, Bonpala, Chotanagpuri and Birbhum sheep breeds.
7. PROJECT TITLE: CENTRALLY SPONSORED SCHEME ON CONSERVATION OF THREATENED BREED (GHOONGROO PIG):
Ghoongroo Pig, an indigenous (landrace) breed of pig belongs to Dooars’ valley of West Bengal. The breed was unknown to scientists, planners and developers before launching of the scheme. Scientists of West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences first identified and reported about the breed. High prolificacy, faster growth, consumers’ preference and adaptability to low management input are some of the outstanding characteristics of the breed. The unique germ plasm was under constant threat due to indiscriminate breeding with scrap variety. Most significantly, the breed has the potential to replace the exotic breed from temperate zone used for improved pig production programme.
• Targets / Action points: Breed Conservation
• Targets Achieved: Conservation and propagation of the breed
• Technology transferred: Ghoongroo Pig Production Techno-logy
• Major achievement: The Breed has been registered as first Indigenous breed of India
Most interestingly the breed has adapted very well to South Bengal climate. It has become very popular among the pig farmers of South Bengal because of its high growth rate at the farmers’ house, low health problem, excellent prolificacy, low mortality at pre-weaning stage, high quality pork and consequently high consumer demand. A male or female animal at the age of marketing (10 months) fetches a huge profit margin. This has made the breed popular in South Bengal. There is always a very high demand for weaned piglets.
8. PROJECT TITLE: EPIDEMIOLOGY OF EXTENDED-SPECTRUM BETA LACTAMASES (ESBL) IN ENTEROBACTERIACEAE GROUP OF BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM SWINE IN NER (ASSAM, ARUNACHAL PRADESH, MANIPUR, MEGHALAYA, MIZORAM, NAGALAND, SIKKIM & TRIPURA) AND SWINE & POULTRY IN WEST BENGAL:
• Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Klebsiella were isolated from healthy backyard birds, broilers, krouilers, besides indigenous (non-descript) and farmed pigs.
• In backyard poultry (RIR breed) virulence genes for avian pathogenic E. coli (n=272) (papC, tsh, iucC) was not detected except the astA. The study revealed that the commensal E. coli present in backyard birds are devoid of virulence genes to establish infection. Further, these commensal E. coli also did not possess any virulence genes for shiga toxin producing E. coli and uropathogenic E. coli that are major human pathogen. So the backyard birds may be considered as a safe food in terms of zoonotic microbial infection. Whereas, among the E. coli isolates of broilers examined by m-PCR, 5.1% were found to possess the virulence genes for shiga toxin producing E. coli and enteropathogenic E. coli.
• Regarding the carriage of major extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) genes, the studied backyard birds were detected to be free whereas, broilers (29.4%) possessed them. This finding also revealed that the backyard birds are safe in terms of antimicrobial resistance gene transfer.
• ESBL-E. coli was detected with higher frequency in indigenous pigs than the farmed pigs, although no history of antibiotic use in indigenous pigs was noted.
• During in vivo challenge study of ESBL-E. coli in different breeds of poultry such as RIR, broiler and Haringhata Black (native breed), high immune responses were observed in HB and RIR birds than the broilers that could be one of the driving factor of disease resistance.
The in vivo challenge of ESBL-E. coli in different breeds of poultry also revealed that, ceftriaxone-tazobactam combination (8:1) @ 25 mg kg-1 bw-1 at 12 h interval for 3 consecutive days can be used as effective treatment strategy.
9. PROJECT TITLE: ICAR SPONSORED ‘POULTRY SEED PROJECT’:
The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (under Project Directorate on Poultry, Hyderabad; Central Avian Research Institute, Bareily) and several State Agricultural and Veterinary Universities developed improved chicken varieties (Vanaraja, Giriraja, Gramapriya, CARI Shyam, Rajarshi, Swarnadhara, Nandanam, Krishna-J, Gramalakshmi, CARI Gold etc.), suitable for rural poultry farming. Majority of these varieties resemble the native chicken. It grows fast and produce more number of eggs and require low input (like feed, housing, management, health care, etc.). It also sustains different hazards of the climatic and environmental changes. The Project Directorate on Poultry has developed three promising chicken varieties which can sustain and perform better than the native (deshi) chicken varieties available in the country. The improved rural chicken varieties developed by PDP are Gramapriya, Vanaraja and Krishibro which are popular for their egg production, dual purpose and meat yield respectively. All these birds gained wider acceptability across the country with the limited extension and commercial propagation facilities available with the Directorate.
A need was felt to establish rural chicken germplasm units across the country to meet the growing demand for these chicken varieties and also to avoid difficulties involved in transportation of these delicate and perishable eggs and chicks throughout the country.
The achievements of the project during reporting period is as follows –
• Targets / Action points: Production and propagation of Vanaraja and Grampriya chicks
• Targets Achieved: More than three lakh chicks have been produced and propagated
• Technology transferred: Rearing of Vanaraja and Grampriya birds in backyard
• Major achievement: Popularization of Vanaraja & Grampriya birds as a source of supplementary income.
10. PROJECT TITLE: OUTREACH PROGRAMME ON ‘LIVESTOCK RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS, CONTAMINANTS AND TOXICANTS (MONITORING OF DRUG RESIDUES AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANT)’:
Monitoring of drug residues and pesticide residue in edible tissues of livestock and evaluation of their safety is the major areas of work under the project. The project is with the objective to determine marker residues and to prepare data based monograph of pesticides and drugs in animal products with special reference to metabolism study of pesticides in farm animals.
Samples were collected from open markets of North 24 Pargana, South 24 Pargana and Kolkata. A total of 107 chicken, 86 chevon, 95 milk and 88 egg samples were analyzed for antibacterial and pesticides concentration. Endosulfan and Chlorpyrifos were detected in egg and milk samples which were below MRL value.
11. PROJECT TITLE: OUTREACH PROGRAMME ON ZOONOTIC DISEASES (DERMATOPHYTOSIS AND CRYPTOCOCCOSIS IN ANIMALS AND THEIR PUBLIC HEALTH IMPORTANCE):
The collaborating centre in West Bengal is working on “Dermatophytosis and Cryptococcosis in animals and their public health importance”. After examining different species of animals and human, this center has isolated 7 species of dermatophytes- Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, M. nanum, Trichophyton verrucosum, T. mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, T. equinum. Different epidemiological data have been collected and analysed for all clinically suspected animals and human. A retrospective study was done to reveal the zoonotic potency of the isolated dermatophytes. Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gatti is isolated from different environmental samples specially pigeon droppings and excreta from other domestic and pet birds, and cloacal swabs. Cryptococcus sp. was isolated from HIV positive human patients and a retrospective study is ongoing. The center is presently working on Antifungal Sensitivity Testing of the isolated organisms and Molecular Identification techniques for rapid identification of the diseases.
12. PROJECT TITLE: CENTRALLY SPONSORED SCHEME ON IN-SITU CONSERVATION OF THREATENED BREED (HARINGHATA BLACK CHICKEN):
Haringhata Black, an indigenous fowl genetic resource came to the notice of scientists, planners and developers 25 years back by virtue of its superb adaptability to back yard system, productivity and disease tolerance. The breed has been listed by Acharya and Bhat (1984), NBAGR (2004) and World Watch List (FAO, 2009). However, the indigenous breed, like others lost track due to market competition with commercial layer and broiler of synthetic strain (Singh and Singh, 2004). The breed is constantly loosing genetic identity (purity) due to unregulated breeding with other breeds in the back yard. Farmers’ ignorance coupled with lack of attention of other stakeholders. This has eventually led to a threat to the breed. Due to genetic dilution the breed has developed several defects, viz., loss of body conformation (originally ideal layer type), reduction in body size and loss of egg production.
• Targets / Action points: In-situ Conservation of Haringhata Black Chicken
• Targets Achieved: In-situ conservation programme has been launched on 15.01.2015 at Village-Sonakhali, Haringhata, Dist-Nadia involving all the households of the village
• Technology transferred: Rearing of Haringhata Black chicken in backyard
• Major achievement: First time in India the action plan/ protocol for in-situ conservation of chicken breed has been successfully implemented.
Faculty of Fishery Sciences
1. PROJECT TITLE: NICRA PROJECT ON DEVELOPMENT OF CLIMATE RESILIENT AQUACULTURE STRATEGIES FOR SAGAR AND BASANTI BLOCK OF INDIAN SUNDARBANS:
For the year 2014-15, four programmes were taken up – (i) survival and growth performances of few brackish water fish species in freshwater (ii) survival and growth performances of 11 fresh water fish species at different salinity, (iii) development climate-resilient aquaculture strategies for better adaptation to conditions brought about through climate change, notably increased salinity and (iv) strengthen the capacity of fish farmers to prepare and respond effectively to future climate-induced changes .
• Macrobrachium rosenbergii was found to be the most tolerant species followed by Channa punctatus, Puntius javanicus, Cyprinus carpio, Puntius sarana, Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Catla catla, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Labeo bata.
• Eight brackish water species viz., Liza parsia, Scatophagus argus, Liza tade, Terapon jarbua, Etroplus suratensis, Mystus gulio and Penaeus monodon thrived well and grew satisfactorily in freshwater.
• Climate Resilient Species combinations for the salinity intrusion zone of Sundarban were finalised
• Climate adaptive integrated farming technique through incorporating salt tolerant fish, livestok, horticulture and crop varieties were developed
• Trial Fish feed (to combat salinity stress) for demonstration was developed (total energy-3000 kcal/kg.) with the ingredients of soya meal, fish meal, wheat bran, vegetable oil, vitamin, mineral, immunostimulant. Irrespective of species and salinity levels, this high energy feed exhibited significantly better growth than normal feed.
• Two farmers training cum demonstration on “Climate Resilient Aquaculture for Sundarban” was conducted.
• Climate Resilient Species combinations for the salinity intrusion zone of Sundarban
• Based on species specific salinity tolerance and adaptability study; post-flooding growth performance of freshwater fish and survival and growth performance of brackish water fish in freshwater trial and growth and production trend obtained so far the following species combinations are proposed for different saline water flooding prone zones of the Sundarban:
Species suitable for areas vulnerable to low saline water flooding (upto 5 ppt) : i)Labeo rohita ii) Catla catla iii) Cyprinus carpio iv) Ctenopharyngodon idella v) Hypophthalmichthys molitrix vi) Macrobrachium rosenbergii vii) Puntius javanicus viii) Penaeus monodon ix) Terapon jarbua x) Scatophagous argus xi) Liza parsia
Species suitable for areas vulnerable to medium saline water flooding (upto 10 ppt): i)Labeo rohita ii) Puntius javanicus iii) Cyprinus carpio iv) Macrobrachium rosenbergii v) Puntius sarana vi) Ctenopharyngodon idella vii) Cirrhinus mrigala viii) Penaeus monodon ix) Terapon jarbua x) Scatophagous argus xi) Mystus gulio
Species suitable for areas vulnerable to high saline water flooding (above 10 ppt): i) Cyprinus carpio ii) Puntius javanicus iii) Penaeus monodon iv) Terapon jarbua v) Scatophagous argus vi) Macrobrachium rosenbergii vii) Etroplus suratensis viii) Liza parsia ix)Mugil cephalus x) Mystus gulio
• Climate adaptive integrated farming: In order to enhance the resilience among the marginal fish farmers of Sundarban, livestock crop integration with aquaculture as Climate Adaptive Integrated Farming (CAIF) has been tried and was found not only profitable but has been able to make the system more resilient towards extreme events due to climate change. Incorporation of salt tolerant fruits and horticultural crops with salt tolerant aquacultural species has resulted in better economic returns, capacity enhancement and reduced risk. This is achieved through land shaping, reclamation, re-excavation of ponds including 3-tier step-cutting or terracing on inward slopes of the ponds. Plantation on the top of the dyke has resulted in its strengthening.
2. PROJECT TITLE: DETERMINATION OF THE CONSERVATION VALUE OF THE MANGROVES OF INDIAN SUNDERBAN:
The Indian Sundarban mangrove forest covers an area of about 4,267 sq km which is administratively divided into Sundarban Tiger Reserve (STR; 2585 sq km) and 24-Parganas (South) Forest Division (1682 sq km). About 1,255 sq km of the Tiger Reserve area serves as the buffer zone, where limited fishing activities are permitted with prior permission of the Forest Department.
Rest of the mangrove area is spread over parts of two districts viz. North 24- Parganas and 24-Parganas (South), covering 19 community development blocks, 190 Gram Panchayats and 1064 villages with human settlements. The present survey work was carried out for the 69 mangrove patches (613 nos of sub patches) spread over 10 community development blocks with the total area of 153.2596 sq km approximately. The average area of each patch is 2.23 sq km. This is the first time that this kind of comprehensive survey work (Rapid Biodiversity Inventory) to assess the status of mangroves, its associated flora and associated fauna were carried to find out their conservation values. Most of the patches falling in eastern sector were sparse in nature whereas many of the patches of central and western sectors were dense in nature. During the survey we observed that the diversity was more in central and western sector compared to eastern sector. The eastern sector patches are planted ones and have more human pressure compared to the patches of central and western sectors.
It has been observed that people settled around the patches have become more alert in protecting the nearby patches. However at few sites we could observe reclamation of land after clearing the existing mangroves for aquaculture purposes, house construction and also cutting of trees or branches for their local needs. At many patches, especially in eastern sector, we didn’t find many seedlings due to grazing by livestocks. We could also observe wide spread catching of prawn seeds by local villagers using cloth type small drag nets having very small mesh size. During this process there has been wide spread destruction of seeds of other fishes also.
Overall diversity among mangroves and associate flora and fauna have been found to be more in central and western sector compared to eastern sector. However, compared to previous years, the diversity seems to have come down drastically.
It has also been observed that many hotels have already been built or being constructed near to these patches and the number of tourists and tourist boats have increased many folds during last few years.
3. PROJECT TITLE: SURVEILLANCE OF DISEASES OF AQUACULTURED FINFISH AND SHELLFISH AND DEVELOPMENT OF DISEASE MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES:
• Created facilities for fish disease diagnosis
• Created a database on diseases of freshwater and brackish water fish of West Bengal
• Documented the pathology of carp and catfish diseases
• Documented the pathophysiology of carps
• Documented the status on emerging finfish and shellfish diseases
• Identified the suitable stress indicators in carps and catfish
• Identified the potential growth indicators in carps and catfish
• Immune markers for the selection of disease resistant carps stocks
• Probiotics and immunomodulators for carps
• Developed skilled human resources
• Molecular characterization of Myxobolus spp.
• Molecular characterization of Thelohanellus spp.
• Molecular characterization Argulus spp.
• Reported a new disease, Flectobacillosis in Labeo rohita
• Reported the incidence of cyprinid herpus virus 2 disease in Carasius auratus and validated by the National referral laboratories
• Reported the incidence of cyprinid herpus virus 3 disease in Carasius auratus and the finding is yet to be validated by the National referral laboratories
• Reported the incidence of lymphocystis viral disease in Anabas testudineus, confirmed by histopathology shrimp (acidosis, alkalosis, high algal bloom, asphyxiation etc.
4. PROJECT TITLE: DEVELOPMENT OF SURVEILLANCE PROGRAMME FOR AQUATIC ANIMAL DISEASES IN WEST BENGAL:
Some of the major fish diseases which have been identified in West Bengal during the surveys undertaken by the project are:
• Bacterial – Motile Aeromonas Septicaemia, Edwardsiellosis and Vibriosis;
• Viral – White Spot Syndrome Virus in shrimp;
• Parasitic – Myxoboliosis, Thellohanelosis, Argulosis, Dactylogyrosis, Lernaeasis, Trichodiniasis, Leeches etc.
• Other types – Nutritional health hazards (muscle cramp in shrimp, softshellness in shrimp, stunted growth, scoliosis, weight loss etc. and environmentally induced diseases in fishes/shrimp (acidosis, alkalosis, high algal bloom, asphyxiation etc.
Directorate of Research, Extension & Farms
1. PROJECT TITLE: PILOT PROJECT ON CLIMATE-RESILIENT ADAPTATION THROUGH PHYSICAL PROTECTION AND ENHANCED FOOD PRODUCTION FOR INDIAN SUNDARBANS:
Mousuni island, the project site is encircled by Muriganga river in the west and north-west, Chenayer river in the east and the Bay of Bengal in the south. Total land area of this island is 30 sq. km. which supports a population of 22,000. The island is experiencing many climate induced stresses like increase in extreme weather events, sea level rise, accelerated coastline erosion, submergence of land, salinisation etc. In the recent years this island has been facing acute problem of accelerated coastline erosion as well as periodic flooding of homestead and productive agricultural lands with saline water due to breach of embankments in many parts of this island, especially on the western side. Small farmers, when faced with the situation of being unable to cultivate their land or of having completely lost their land due to flooding, either turn to fishing or migrate as unskilled labourers, which results in a lower quality of life.
• Vulnerability assessment of the island was conducted through topographic survey, embankment survey and social survey with the help of Jadavpur University. It included micro-level risk zoning and spatial planning to identify the vulnerable stretches of embankment, low-lying areas within the island which are vulnerable to coastal flooding, close grid elevation survey to prepare elevation map, and socio-economic survey to identify households’ vulnerability of the island.
• Awareness campaigns were organised regularly to aware the people about the climate induced variability. A knowledge-attitude-practice survey was conducted to assess the level of awareness and knowledge of the community on climate change and its impacts on their livelihoods especially agriculture and aquaculture.
• The volunteers from the island were trained on Community Based Disaster Management (CBDM) by trainers from Lutheran World Services India Trust (LWSIT). Under each tem, 5 task forces were formed with distinct different responsibilities such as: (i) early warning and rescue, (ii) shelter management, and water and sanitation, (iii) primary health care, (iv) damage and loss estimation, and (v) coordination.
• Farmers were motive to cultivate 6 salt tolerant paddy varieties namely Talmugur, Nonashal, Nonabokhra, Sadagetu, Lalgetu, and Hamilton. These varieties showed tolerance against saline water flooding and farmers were able to get satisfactory yield despite flooding, where as farmers growing conventional high yielding varieties suffered loss.
• Five salt tolerant indigenous Fish and prawn species were introduced in freshwater ponds of farmers alongwith the freshwater species. The species were: Liza tade -Tade Grey Mullet, Liza parsia – Goldspot Mullet, Scatophagus argus – Soptted Scat, Mystus gulio and Penaeus monodon-Tiger Shrimp. These species showed good survival and growth in freshwater. To enhance the income from these ponds, fish-livestock-crop integration was adopted. Horticultura crops like ¬¬¬ mango, coconut, sapodilla (local name – Sapeda) and Java apple (local name – Jamrul) were planted on the pond dykes.
• A Climate Change Information and Adaptation Centre has been established which is acting as a nodal centre for enhanced knowledge dissemination (on climate change and adaptation practices) and coordination centre (for disaster response).
• An Innovative Embankment Design has been developed with the help of Indian Institute of Technology Madras (IIT-M) for Physical Protection of Island. The pilot testing of this design at a vulnerable stretch is under the consideration of the funding agency.
2. PROJECT TITLE: PRE-FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR AN ENVISAGED SUSTAINABLE AQUACULTURE PROGRAMME UNDER INDO GERMAN FINANCIAL COOPERATION:
The overall purpose of this study is to collect and analyse information, which will enable the relevant Indian partner and KfW to assess whether a financial cooperation in the field of sustainable aquaculture would be viable. Therefore, the consultants’ tasks include, but not limited to, assessing, analysing and reporting on the following aspects:
• Analysis of current strategies and approaches of Govt. of India on Sustainable Aquaculture and related issues;
• Compilation and assessment of the current status of policies and national programmes on Sustainable Aquaculture on central and state level, including the needs for certification, labelling;
• Analysis of current and planned promotional measures for Sustainable Aquaculture of other bilateral and multilateral donor organizations in India;
• Assess the current business models for Sustainable Aquaculture relevant in India and undertake a SWOT analysis;
• Role of credit at different nodes of value chain, existing credit instruments, type of credit accessed by the existing small-scale fish farmers and scope/ need for introducing new variants of credit instruments;
• Identify/assess investment and capacity building needs, investment alternatives, absorption capacity, and financing mechanisms;
• Provide general justifications for supporting Sustainable Aquaculture in India;
• Identify main NGOs which are active in the Sustainable Aquaculture sector and assess their potential, preparedness and interest for possible partnership;
• Analyse demand for loan financed promotion measures;
• Provide a conclusive assessment as to whether or not KfW shall pursue a Sustainable Aquaculture project;
• In case of a positive conclusion, identify the relevant line department or other government agency to act as project executing agency, or discuss the option to include Sustainable Aquaculture as a separate window to a possible Umbrella Programme Phase III in cooperation with NABARD.
• Recommend a viable implementation structure for a loan based programme on:
A national Sustainable Aquaculture FC Programme, with NABARD or a relevant central Ministry as Project Executing Agencies
State led Sustainable Aquaculture Programme, with single and direct agreements between KfW and respective state departments as Project Executing Agencies, but possibly organised as a national umbrella programme.
To capture a wider diversity of viewpoints on the proposed loan based programme, four stakeholder groups (practicing farmers, NGOs, Banks / MFIs and Govt. officials) are included for the questionnaire based survey, Focus Group Discussion (FGD) and Workshop. Five leading fish producing states, namely West Bengal, Odisha, Bihar, Assam and Andhra Pradesh are covered in this study. So far a number of findings have emerged from the pre-feasibility study on loan-based support programme for sustainable aquaculture. These include the following points.
• There is a clear demand for subsidized loan-based support programme for sustainable aquaculture both in freshwater and brackishwater sectors in India.
• All projects under the proposed programme should ensure sustainable management of aquaculture resources, involve local community participation, increase farm production, create livelihood opportunities, and strengthen value chain.
• The vulnerable sections of the society (scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, minorities, women etc.) should be given priority while selecting the beneficiaries for the programme.
• Aquaculture needs flexible loan terms (i.e. in interest rate, tenure, gestation period, collaterals etc.) as nature of culture varies from species to species, region to region and between freshwater and brackishwater. Hence, financial programme should be tailor-made depending on the nature of aquaculture, the implementing partner and the target group.
• Private-Public partnership should be encouraged in project implementation. Non-government organisations, community based organisations, cooperatives, producer companies, microfinance-finance institutions, banks, public sector agencies, etc. should join hands for successful project implementation and linking aquaculture activities to existing value chains.
• Apart from mainstream aquaculture, out-of-the-box activities like integrated fish farming with livestock and /or agriculture, climate resilient aquaculture in vulnerable areas, women-oriented ornamental fish farming, certified organic aquaculture through farmer group, community based aquaculture in village pond / derelict water body etc. can be promoted through the proposed programme.
• Conventional finance delivery system through bank requires clear title for fishpond, collateral from farmer and long documentation. These keep the small and marginal fish farmers shy away from bank loans. Hence, options of group-based finance models through Self Help Groups (SHGs) / Joint Liability Group (JLG) should be explored as finance delivery system for small and marginal fish farmers and to ensure timely repayment.
• Often loan with a grant facility would ensure economic viability and reduce the risk of loan default. Grant component should be utilized for capacity building trainings, crop insurance, administrative cost of NGO, creating common facilities, supplying critical input, etc.
• Piloting of Grant-cum-loan model in aquaculture is preferred before final implementation of the proposed programme.
3. PROJECT TITLE: ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT FOR TRADITIONAL SHRIMP FARMING CLUSTERS IN NORTH 24 PARGANAS DISTRICT OF WEST BENGAL:
Organic Services is an international consultancy firm with its head office at Landsberger Str. 527, 81241 München, Germany. The organisation has been involved in setting up various organic aquaculture projects world-wide. The firm is now taking up a pilot project in India which intends to convert some traditional shrimp farming clusters to organic shrimp production zone in Basirhat II Block of North 24 Parganas district. To add value to the organic certification, the firm has awarded the consultancy service to the University for conducting Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) study in the pilot project area. The specific objectives of the study are:
• To identify potential environmental social impacts (if any) of traditional shrimp farming activities in the pilot project area,
• To evaluate alternative approaches, and to design and incorporate appropriate prevention, mitigation, management and monitoring measures.
• To use EIA is a tool for facilitating the production of organic shrimp from the project area.
• The study would cover following areas.
Detail overview of the project locations, its existing settings and special ecological features
Demographic features of the locality
Assessment of resource users and conflicts
Livelihood study of fish farmers, farm workers
Climatic time series and variability data analysis
Assessment of terrestrial biological resources
Source of water and its environmental quality
Environmental quality of cultured farm
Environmental quality of discharge
Assessment of environmental/public health hazards factor
Detail existing aquaculture practice and management
Production and economics analysis
Strategic Impact Assessment
4. PROJECT TITLE: NATIONAL INFORMATION SYSTEM IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION NETWORK OF INDIA (NISAGENET):
The National Information System on Agricultural Education Network in India (NISAGENET) portal is being maintained at the Central Server of IASRI, New Delhi under the supervision of NISAGENET team, IASRI, to provide reports on agricultural education in India. It provides a unified information system for collection, compilation and analysis of data about the activities of the agricultural education system in India. The portal provides a wide spectrum of information relevant to the SAUs and Deemed universities under ICAR.
West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences had established a NISAGENET Cell in January, 2005 to update and upload information about the University on the NISAGENET portal server.
The NISAGENET system provides an uniform system on collection, compilation and analysis of information about the activities of the agricultural education system in India. It will provide all the information as desired by National Statistical Commission (NSC-2001). The statistical data is being provided to Ministry of HRD from IASRI, New Delhi, as per requirement from time to time.